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خط ، زبانِ دست و حافظِ افکار و آثار آدمی
The first writing
In different parts of the world, as civilization grew more complex, people started to write. The earliest systems were invented by the Egyptians and the Sumerians of Mesopotamia. That reason for inventing writing was to record commercial transactions. Later, writing was used for letters, religious texts, law codes, and to record historical events. With the coming of writing, history begins. For the first time, we know the names of ancient peoples and their rulers. and we can read their stories, written in their own words.
A writing technique used in the Middle East between 2600-330 BCE was called cuneiform, meaning "wedge-shaped'.
The signs were formed by pressing a pointed reed, into wet clay, each time producing a wedge shaped. The resulting picture signs stood for words, sounds, ideas, and objects.
Egyptian hieroglyphs (sacred signs) used pictures of everyday objects to represent objects, ideas, and sounds. The names of pharaohs, shown in oval shapes called "cartouches", included as relatives. Each pharaoh had two royal names. On the right are the names of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, with a red disk for Re, and an ibis bird for Thoth.
Tuthmosis III was called Menkheperre meaning "Eternal is the form of Re", and Tuthmosis Neferkheperu, meaning "Born of Thoth", beautiful of forms".
The Egyptians used hieroglyphs on bone and ivory tags to table goods. These Are among the oldest surviving examples of writing.
The sumerians were writing with cuneiform (wedge shaped) script on clay tablets. The first signs were pictures of animals and objects, later simplified to patterns of wedges.
Indus people of northwest India and Pakistan invented a script. The only texts known to exist are very short, and written on merchants, seals.
The Minoans of Crete invented a writing system, called liner A, with 90 picture signs, standings for syllables and objects. It has not been deciphered.
The Chinese wrote on "oracle bones', using picture signs called ídeograms", each standing for an idea or an object. There are no sound signs.
Phoenicians began using an alphabet. There were earlier alphabets in the Near East, but it was the Phoenicians who spread the id
Some archaeological believe that the first written texts in the Americas data from around 900 BCE, based on a carving from Veracruz in Mexico, which appears to have 28 signs.
The Mayans used glyphs (sign) to crave monumental inscriptions, paint texts on vases, and write books.
The Indus people invented a writing system that has not been deciphered, Indus writing, using 300 picture signs, only survives on stone seals, used to identify goods and their owners.
The Mayans of Mesoamerica invented a writing system with signs, called glyphs. which represented syllables and ideas. They wrote religious texts in screenfold books, made from fig tree bark.
Chinese oracle bones
The oldest surviving Chinese writing is on "oracle bones", used for divination (telling the future). A diviner wrote questions, such as when crops should be planted, on ox shoulder blade bones or turtle shell. These were then heated and the cracks that appeared to give the answers.
Around 1050 BCE, there was a huge advance, when he Phoenicians began using an alphabet, a system with signs standing for consonants. The advantage of this was that there were just 22 signs to learn. It was now easy for ordinary people to learn to read and write.
Adapting the alphabet
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